A Level Biology Bridging Work Complete research on one of the topics on page 7-8 Choose one of the topics in slide 9-11 Complete all of the tasks related to this topic Complete the A Level Biology Transition Baseline Assessment on slides 16-19 Work should be printed off and handed in on the first lesson after of the new term 1 So you are considering A level Biology? This pack contains a programme of activities and resources to prepare you to start A level in Biology in September. It is aimed to be used after you complete your GCSE throughout the remainder of the Summer term and over the Summer Holidays to ensure you are ready to start your course in September. https://www.distance-education-academy.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/biology-a-level-course.jpg 2 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Book Recommendations Kick back this summer with a good read. The books below are all popular science books and great for extending your understanding of Biology The Red Queen Its all about sex. Or sexual selection at least. This book will really help your understanding of evolution and particularly the fascinating role of sex in evolution. Available at amazon.co.uk
Junk DNA Our DNA is so much more complex than you probably realize, this book will really deepen your understanding of all the work you will do on Genetics. Available at amazon.co.uk A Short History of Nearly Everything A whistle-stop tour through many aspects of history from the Big Bang to now. This is a really accessible read that will re-familiarise you with common concepts and introduce you to some of the more colourful characters from the history of science! Available at amazon.co.uk Studying Geography as well? Hens teeth and horses toes Stephen Jay Gould is a great Evolution writer and this book discusses lots of fascinating stories about Geology and evolution. Available at amazon.co.uk An easy read.. Frankensteins cat Discover how glow in the dark fish are made and more great Biotechnology breakthroughs. Available at amazon.co.uk 3 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016
Movie Recommendations Everyone loves a good story and everyone loves some great science. Here are some of the picks of the best films based on real life scientists and discoveries. You wont find Jurassic Park on this list, weve looked back over the last 50 years to give you our top 5 films you might not have seen before. Great watching for a rainy day. Gorillas in the Mist (1988) An absolute classic that retells the true story of the life and work of Dian Fossey and her work studying and protecting mountain gorillas from poachers and habitat loss. A tear jerker. Inherit The Wind (1960) Great if you can find it. Based on a real life trial of a teacher accused of the crime of teaching Darwinian evolution in school in America. Does the debate rumble on today? Andromeda Strain (1971) Science fiction by the great thriller writer Michael Cricthon (he of Jurassic Park fame). Humans begin dying when an alien microbe arrives on Earth. Lorenzos Oil (1992) Based on a true story. A young child suffers from an autoimmune disease. The parents research and
challenge doctors to develop a new cure for his disease. Something the Lord Made (2004) Professor Snape (the late great Alan Rickman) in a very different role. The film tells the story of the scientists at the cutting edge of early heart surgery as well as issues surrounding racism at the time. There are some great TV series and box sets available too, you might want to check out: Blue Planet, Planet Earth, The Ascent of Man, Catastrophe, Frozen Planet, Life Story, The Hunt and Monsoon. 4 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Movie Recommendations If you have 30 minutes to spare, here are some great presentations (and free!) from world leading scientists and researchers on a variety of topics. They provide some interesting answers and ask some thought-provoking questions. Use the link or scan the QR code to view: A New Superweapon in the Fight Against Cancer Available at : http://www.ted.com/talks/paula_hammon d_a_new_superweapon_in_the_fight_agai nst_cancer?language=en Cancer is a very clever, adaptable disease. To defeat it, says medical researcher and educator Paula Hammond, we need a new and powerful mode of attack. Why Bees are Disappearing
Available at : http://www.ted.com/talks/marla_spivak_w hy_bees_are_disappearing?language=en Honeybees have thrived for 50 million years, each colony 40 to 50,000 individuals coordinated in amazing harmony. So why, seven years ago, did colonies start dying en-masse? Why Doctors Dont Know About the Drugs They Prescribe Available at : http://www.ted.com/talks/ben_goldacre_ what_doctors_don_t_know_about_the_dr ugs_they_prescribe?language=en When a new drug gets tested, the results of the trials should be published for the rest of the medical world except much of the time, negative or inconclusive findings go unreported, leaving doctors and researchers in the dark. Growing New Organs Available at : http://www.ted.com/talks/anthony_atala_ growing_organs_engineering_tissue?langu age=en Anthony Atalla's state-of-the-art lab grows human organs from muscles to blood vessels to bladders, and more. 5 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Research activities Research, reading and note making are essential skills for A level Biology study. For the following task you are going to produce Cornell Notes to summarise your reading. 1. Divide your page into three sections like this
3. Use the large box to make notes. Leave a space between separate idea. Abbreviate where possible. 2. Write the name, date and topic at the top of the page 4. Review and identify the key points in the left hand box 5. Write a summary of the main ideas in the bottom space Images taken from http://coe.jmu.edu/learningtoolbox/cornellnotes.html 6 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Research activities The Big Picture is an excellent publication from the Wellcome Trust. Along with the magazine, the company produces posters, videos and other resources aimed at students studying for GCSEs and A level. For each of the following topics, you are going to use the resources to produce one page of Cornell style notes. Use the links of scan the QR code to take you to the resources. Topic 1: The Cell Available at: http://bigpictureeducation.com/cell
The cell is the building block of life. Each of us starts from a single cell, a zygote, and grows into a complex organism made of trillions of cells. In this issue, we explore what we know and what we dont yet know about the cells that are the basis of us all and how they reproduce, grow, move, communicate and die. Topic 2: The Immune System Available at: http://bigpictureeducation.com/immune The immune system is what keeps us healthy in spite of the many organisms and substances that can do us harm. In this issue, explore how our bodies are designed to prevent potentially harmful objects from getting inside, and what happens when bacteria, viruses, fungi or other foreign organisms or substances breach these barriers. Topic 3: Exercise, Energy and Movement Available at: http://bigpictureeducation.com/exercise-energy-andmovement All living things move. Whether its a plant growing towards the sun, bacteria swimming away from a toxin or you walking home, anything alive must move to survive. For humans though, movement is more than just survival we move for fun, to compete and to be healthy. In this issue we look at the biological systems that keep us moving and consider some of the psychological, social and ethical aspects of exercise and sport. 7 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Topic 4: Populations Available at: http://bigpictureeducation.com/populations Whats the first thing that pops into your mind when you read the word population? Most likely its the ever-increasing human population on earth. Youre a member of that population, which is the term for all
the members of a single species living together in the same location. The term population isnt just used to describe humans; it includes other animals, plants and microbes too. In this issue, we learn more about how populations grow, change and move, and why understanding them is so important. Topic 4: Populations Available at: http://bigpictureeducation.com/health-and-climate-c hange The Earths climate is changing. In fact, it has always been changing. What is different now is the speed of change and the main cause of change human activities. This issue asks: What are the biggest threats to human health? Who will suffer as the climate changes? What can be done to minimise harm? And how do we cope with uncertainty? 8 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Pre-Knowledge Topics A level Biology will use your knowledge from GCSE and build on this to help you understand new and more demanding ideas. Complete the following tasks to make sure your knowledge is up to date and you are ready to start studying: DNA and the Genetic Code In living organisms nucleic acids (DNA and RNA have important roles and functions related to their properties. The sequence of bases in the DNA molecule determines the structure of proteins, including enzymes. The double helix and its four bases store the information that is passed from generation to generation. The sequence of the base pairs adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine tell ribosomes in the cytoplasm how to construct amino acids into polypeptides and produce every characteristic we see. DNA can mutate leading to diseases including cancer and sometimes anomalies in the genetic code are passed from parents to babies in disease such as cystic fibrosis, or can be developed in unborn foetuses such as Downs Syndrome. Read the information on these websites (you could make more Cornell notes if you wish): http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z36mmp3/revision http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/dna-and-genetic-code And take a look at these videos: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-twisting-tale-of-dna-judith-hauck
http://ed.ted.com/lessons/where-do-genes-come-from-carl-zimmer Task: Produce a wall display to put up in your classroom in September. You might make a poster or do this using PowerPoint or similar Your display should use images, keywords and simple explanations to: Define gene, chromosome, DNA and base pair Describe the structure and function of DNA and RNA Explain how DNA is copied in the body Outline some of the problems that occur with DNA replication and what the consequences of this might be. Evolution Transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next can ensure continuity of species or lead to variation within a species and possible formation of new species. Reproductive isolation can lead to accumulation of different genetic information in populations potentially leading to formation of new species (speciation). Sequencing projects have read the genomes of organisms ranging from microbes and plants to humans. This allows the sequences of the proteins that derive from the genetic code to be predicted. Gene technologies allow study and alteration of gene function in order to better understand organism function and to design new industrial and medical processes. Read the information on these websites (you could make more Cornell notes if you wish): http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/z237hyc/revision/4 http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/evolution And take a look at these videos: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-to-sequence-the-human-genome-mark-j-kiel http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-race-to-sequence-the-human-genome-tien-nguyen Task: Produce a one page revision guide for an AS Biology student that recaps the key words and concepts in this topic. Your revision guide should: Describe speciation Explain what a genome is Give examples of how this information has already been used to develop new treatments and technologies. 9 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Biodiversity The variety of life, both past and present, is extensive, but the biochemical basis of life is similar for all living things. Biodiversity refers to the variety and complexity of life and may be considered at different levels. Biodiversity can be measured, for example within a habitat or at the genetic level. Classification is a means of organising the variety of life based on relationships between organisms and is built around the concept of species. Originally classification systems were based on observable features but more recent approaches draw on a wider range of evidence to clarify relationships between organisms. Adaptations of organisms to their environments can be behavioural, physiological and anatomical. Adaptation and selection are major factors in evolution and make a significant contribution to the diversity of living organisms.
Read the information on these websites (you could make more Cornell notes if you wish): http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/ecological-concepts http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/classification And take a look at these videos: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/why-is-biodiversity-so-important-kim-preshoff http://ed.ted.com/lessons/can-wildlife-adapt-to-climate-change-erin-eastwood Task: Write a persuasive letter to an MP, organisation or pressure group promoting conservation to maintain biodiversity. Your letter should: Define what is meant by species and classification Describe how species are classified Explain one way scientists can collect data about a habitat, giving an example Explain adaptation and how habitat change may pose a threat to niche species Exchange and Transport Organisms need to exchange substances selectively with their environment and this takes place at exchange surfaces. Factors such as size or metabolic rate affect the requirements of organisms and this gives rise to adaptations such as specialised exchange surfaces and mass transport systems. Substances are exchanged by passive or active transport across exchange surfaces. The structure of the plasma membrane enables control of the passage of substances into and out of cells Read the information on these websites (you could make more Cornell notes if you wish): http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/gas-exchange http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/nutrition-and-digestion/revise-it/human-digestive-system And take a look at these videos: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/insights-into-cell-membranes-via-dish-detergent-ethan-perlstein http://ed.ted.com/lessons/what-do-the-lungs-do-emma-bryce Task: Create a poster or display to go in your classroom in September. Your poster should either: compare exchange surfaces in mammals and fish or compare exchange surfaces in the lungs and the intestines. You could use a Venn diagram to do this. Your poster should: Describe diffusion, osmosis and active transport Explain why oxygen and glucose need to be absorbed and waste products removed Compare and contrast your chosen focus. 10 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Cells The cell is a unifying concept in biology, you will come across it many times during your two years of A level study. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells can be distinguished on the basis of their structure and ultrastructure. In complex
multicellular organisms cells are organised into tissues, tissues into organs and organs into systems. During the cell cycle genetic information is copied and passed to daughter cells. Daughter cells formed during mitosis have identical copies of genes while cells formed during meiosis are not genetically identical Read the information on these websites (you could make more Cornell notes if you wish): http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/cells-and-organelles http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zvjycdm/revision And take a look at these videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gcTuQpuJyD8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L0k-enzoeOM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qCLmR9-YY7o Task: Produce a one page revision guide to share with your class in September summarising one of the following topics: Cells and Cell Ultrastructure, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, or Mitosis and Meiosis. Whichever topic you choose, your revision guide should include: Key words and definitions Clearly labelled diagrams Short explanations of key ideas or processes. Biological Molecules Biological molecules are often polymers and are based on a small number of chemical elements. In living organisms carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, inorganic ions and water all have important roles and functions related to their properties. DNA determines the structure of proteins, including enzymes. Enzymes catalyse the reactions that determine structures and functions from cellular to whole-organism level. Enzymes are proteins with a mechanism of action and other properties determined by their tertiary structure. ATP provides the immediate source of energy for biological processes. Read the information on these websites (you could make more Cornell notes if you wish): http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/biology/biological-molecules-and-enzymes http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zb739j6/revision And take a look at these videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8WJ2KENlK0 http://ed.ted.com/lessons/activation-energy-kickstarting-chemical-reactions-vance-kite Task: Krabbe disease occurs when a person doesnt have a certain enzyme in their body. The disease effects the nervous system. Write a letter to a GP or a sufferer to explain what an enzyme is. Your poster should: Describe the structure of an enzyme Explain what enzymes do inside the body 11 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016
Ideas for Day Trips If you are on holiday in the UK, or on a staycation at home, why not plan a day trip to one of these : Glasgow Science Centre - Glasgow The Lakeland Wildlife Oasis - Milnthorpe W5 - Belfast Anglesey Sea Zoo Anglesey Think-tank Birmingham National Museum Cardiff The Eden Project Cornwall Bristol Science Centre - Bristol The Living Rainforest - Newbury Oxford University Museum of Natural History - Oxford Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Dundee Science Centre - Dundee Scottish Seabird centre North Berwick Life Newcastleupon-Tyne Cambridge Science Centre - Cambridge Herriman Museum and Gardens - Londo Centre of the Cell London Royal Botanic Gardens Kew Edinburgh National Marine Aquarium - Plymouth
12 Ideas for Day Trips If you are on holiday in the UK, or on a staycation at home, why not plan a day trip to one of these : Remember there are also lots of zoos, wildlife and safari parks across the country, here are some you may not have heard of or considered: Colchester Zoo, Cotswold Wildlife Park, Banham Zoo (Norfolk), Tropical Birdland (Leicestershire), Yorkshire Wildlife Park, Peak Wildlife Park, International Centre for Birds of Prey (York), Blackpool Zoo, Beale Park (Reading) There are also hundreds of nature reserves (some of which are free) located all over the country including: RSPB sites at Lochwinnoch, Saltholme, Fairburn Ings, Old Moor, Conwy, Minsmere, Rainham Marshes, Pulborough Brooks, Radipole Lake, Newport Wetlands. Wildlife Trust Reserves and others at Rutland Water, Pensthorpe, Insh Marshes, Attenborough Centre, Inversnaid, Skomer, Loch Garten, Donna Nook, Chapmans Well, Woodwalton Fen, London Wetland Centre, Martin Down and Woolston Eyes Reserve. Many organisations also have opportunities for people to volunteer over the summer months, this might include working in a shop/caf/visitor centre, helping with site maintenance or taking part in biological surveys. Not only is this great experience, it looks great on a job or UCAS application. For opportunities keep an eye out in your local press, on social media, or look at the websites of organisations like the RSPB, Wildlife Trust, National Trust or Wildlife & Wetland Trust. There are also probably lots of smaller organisations near you who would also appreciate any support you can give! 13 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Science on Social Media Science communication is essential in the modern world and all the big scientific companies, researchers and institutions have their own social media accounts. Here are some of our top tips to keep up to date with developing news or interesting stories: Follow on Twitter: Commander Chris Hadfield former resident aboard the International Space Station @cmdrhadfield Tiktaalik roseae a 375 million year old fossil fish with its own Twitter account! @tiktaalikroseae NASAs Voyager 2 a satellite launched nearly 40 years ago that is now travelling beyond our Solar System @NSFVoyager2 Neil dGrasse Tyson Director of the Hayden Planetarium in New York
@neiltyson Sci Curious feed from writer and Bethany Brookshire tweeting about good, bad and weird neuroscience @scicurious The SETI Institute The Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence, be the first to know what they find! @setiinstitute Carl Zimmer Science writer Carl blogs about the life sciences @carlzimmer Phil Plait tweets about astronomy and bad science @badastronomer Virginia Hughes science journalist and blogger for National Geographic, keep up to date with neuroscience, genetics and behaviour @virginiahughes Maryn McKenna science journalist who writes about antibiotic resistance @marynmck Find on Facebook: Nature - the profile page for nature.com for news, features, research and events from Nature Publishing Group Marin Conservation Institute publishes the latest science to identify important marine ecosystems around the world. National Geographic - since 1888, National Geographic has travelled the Earth, sharing its amazing stories in pictures and words. Science News Magazine - Science covers important and emerging research in all fields of science. BBC Science News - The latest BBC Science and Environment News: breaking news, analysis and debate on science and nature around the world. 14 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Science websites These websites all offer an amazing collection of resources that you should use again and again through out your course. Probably the best website on Biology. Learn Genetics from Utah University has so much that is pitched at an appropriate level for you and has lots of
interactive resources to explore, everything from why some people can taste bitter berries to how we clone mice or make glow in the dark jelly fish. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu / DNA from the beginning is full of interactive animations that tell the story of DNA from its discovery through to advanced year 13 concepts. One to book mark! http://www.dnaftb.org/ In the summer you will most likely start to learn about Biodiversity and Evolution. Many Zoos have great websites, especially London Zoo. Read about some of the case studies on conservation, such as the Giant Pangolin, the only mammal with scales. https://www.zsl.org/conserva tion At GCSE you learnt how genetic diseases are inherited. In this virtual fly lab you get to breed fruit flies to investigate how different features are passed on. http://sciencecourseware.org/vcise/dro sophila/ Ok, so not a website, but a video you definitely want to watch. One of the first topics you will learn about is the amazing structure of the cell. This BBC
film shows the fascinating workings of a cell a touch more detailed than the fried egg model you might have seen. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xz h0kb_the-hidden-life-of-the-cell_shortf ilms If this link expires google BBC hidden life of the cell 15 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 Science: Things to do! Day 4 of the holidays and boredom has set in? There are loads of citizen science projects you can take part in either from the comfort of your bedroom, out and about, or when on holiday. Wikipedia does a comprehensive list of all the current projects taking place. Google citizen science project Want to stand above the rest when it comes to UCAS? Now is the time to act. MOOCs are online courses run by nearly all Universities. They are short FREE courses that you take part in. They are usually quite specialist, but aimed at the public, not the genius! There are lots of websites that help you find a course, such as edX and Future learn. You can take part in any course, but there are usually start and finish dates. They mostly involve taking part in web chats, watching videos and interactives. Completing a MOOC will look great on your Personal statement and they are dead easy to take part in! 16 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016
A Level Biology Transition Baseline Assessment The following 40 minute test is designed to test your recall, analysis and evaluative skills and knowledge. Remember to use your exam technique: look at the command words and the number of marks each question is worth. A suggested mark scheme is provided for you to check your answers. 1. a) What are the four base pairs found in DNA? . (2) b) What does DNA code for? . (1) c) Which organelle in a cell carries out this function? . (1) 2. a) What theory did Charles Darwin propose? . (1) b) Why did many people not believe Darwin at the time? . (1) c) Describe how fossils are formed. . . . (3) d) The fossil record shows us that there have been some species that have formed and some that have become extinct. i) What is meant by the term species? . (2) ii) Describe how a new species may arise: . . (3) Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016
17 3. Ecologists regularly study habitats to measure the species present and the effect of any changes. One team of ecologists investigated the habitat shown in the picture below: Image taken from http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/soilquality/Dune%20Succession.pdf a) Define the following keywords: i) Population ii) Community (2) b) Give an example of one biotic factor and one abiotic factor that would be present in this habitat Biotic: Abiotic: (2) c) Describe how the ecologists would go about measuring the species present between the coast and the inland. (6) 18 Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 4. Every living organism is made of cells. Image taken from http://prestigebux.com/worksheet/label-an-animal-cell-worksheet a) Label the following parts of the animal cell: 2
5 .. 8 .. (3) b) Describe how is the structure of the cell membrane related to its function? (3) 5. A medical research team investigated how quickly the body deals with glucose after a meal. They studied the blood glucose concentration of people who exercised versus those who did not. Here are their results: Hours after eating Image taken from https://memoirsofanamnesic.wordpress.com/category/blood-glucose/ a) What organ in the body regulates blood glucose concentration? 19 (1) Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016 b) Explain how the stages that would bring about a return to normal blood glucose concentrations. (4) c) Name one variable the researchers will have controlled. (1) d) The researchers made the following conclusion: Blood glucose returns to normal values for all people after 4 hours To what extent do you agree with this conclusion. (3)
6. Scientists need to be able to interpret data in graphs to decide if there are trends in the results. For each graph bellow, describe the trend. (4) Images taken from: http://www.everythingmaths.co.za/science/lifesciences/grade-10/05-support-and-transport-systems-in-plants/images/56aff2f9b6c5b041688f74 5ca928990c.png 20 http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/afa3f2b16b4d58d077943c96929c9a4020fea83a.gif http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/Projects00/temph/enzyme.html http://www.myearthwatchexperience.com/Essential%20Ecology.htm Copyright The PiXL Club Ltd, 2016
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