Introduction to Galileo Image: ESA Overview Galileo Programme Phases, Schedule & Organisation Technological Developments Experimental Satellites IOV & FOC Galileo Architectures Galileo Signals Galileo Services GPS & Galileo GNSS Market Galileo Programme Phases Definition Complete 2003 Development & In-Orbit Validation - Current Full Deployment and Operations 2003 2005 2008 2010 Images: ESA
GPS Constellation GSTB V1 Galileo Exp. SV (2) GSTB V2 Galileo In Orbit Validation Const. (4) IOV Phase Galileo Programme Phases, Schedule & Organisation Galileo Full Operational Const. (30) FOC Phase Planning and Funding 48 Months 24 Months 20 Years Development and Validation Deployment 1.2 Billion
2.2 Billion 220 Million per year Public 1/3 Public, 2/3 Private Private 1-2 Test Satellite & 4 Operational Satellites 26 Satellites Ground Infrastructure EC/ESA Joint Undertaking Ground Infrastructure Operations and Maintenance Routine Operations and Replenishment GALILEO Concessionaire / Galileo Supervisory Authority Galileo Programme Phases, Schedule & Organisation Organisation European Commission European Space Agency GALILEO Joint Undertaking Selection
Respect of concession terms Supervisory Authority System Operator: Concessionaire Public side Private side Galileo Programme Phases, Schedule & Organisation Third countries Concession Joining bidders EURELY: Alcatel, Finmeccanica Aena, Hispasat INAVSAT: Inmarsat, Eads, Thales Confirm services characteristics financial robustness commercial viability Reference Stations Contract negotiation in 2005 Contract Signing 2006 Galileo Programme Phases, Schedule & Organisation Key Technologies & Risk Management GSTBv1 Experimental Ground Segment GPS Constellation Galileo-like Ground Infrastructure Orbit Determination Algorithms, < 50cm Integrity Monitoring Algorithms Experimental Galileo System Time
Clocks European Space Qualified Maser and Rubidium Clock Development. GSTBv2 Ensure Frequency Filings Orbit Environment Characterisation E5a E5b Technological Developments E6 L1 Space Segment Atomic Clocks Source: ESA Development of European SpaceQualified Atomic Clocks Passive Hydrogen Maser 18kg, 45 litres Stability: 1ns per Day, <1ns per 100 minutes Rubidium 3.3kg, 2.4 litres Images: ESA Technological Developments
GSTB-v2 Satellites Objective Secure frequency filings, Full Protection Until 10 June 2006 Deadline (ITU World Radiocommunications Conference Istanbul June 2000) Test Key Technologies Provide Experimental Signal-in-Space Characterise the orbital environment Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) GIOVE A Rubidium Galileo Industries (GAIN) GIOVE B Rubidium, Maser Experimental Satellites GIOVE A Satellite Details SSTL 28M Euro 30-month Stowed Dimensions 1.31.741.65m Lift-Off-Mass 450 kg Power Demand
660 W Propulsion Bay Timing Source 2 Rubidium Clocks Broadcast 2 transmission channels in parallel Experimental Satellites GIOVE A - First Galileo Launch Successful Launch 28th Dec 2005 Soyuz 4-Stage Launch Vehicle L1, E5A & E5B Signals Transmitted & Received 12th January 2006 E6 Signal Transmitted & Received 14th January 2006 Will lead to Frequency Filing Notification to the ITU Images: ESA
Experimental Satellites GIOVE B Satellite Details GAIN Stowed Dimensions 0.9550.9552.4m Lift-Off-Mass 523 kg Power Demand 943 W Timing Source 2 Rubidium, 1 Passive Hydrogen Maser Clock Broadcast 3 transmission channels in parallel Image: ESA Experimental Satellites Galileo Industries Reference Stations Experimental Satellites
IOV Satellites Image: ESA 4 Satellites 4 Clocks 2 Rubidium, 2 Maser Launcher Options: Ariane, Proton, Soyuz, Zenit C-Band, S-Band IR-Earth FSS sun Sensors SAR transponder: appr. 20 kg / 100 W4 Navigation payload: 115 Kg / 780 W Laser Retro-Reflectors 10 Signal Transmission 19th January - ESA and GAIN sign a 950 million IOV contract - satellites and associated ground systems IOV & FOC Galileo Architectures IOV Configuration 2008 4 Satellites 2 ULS/TTC Global Galileo. receiver
Galileo Sensor Stations Global Coverage 3 ULS (collocated ULS/TTC Global at the same sites) 18 to 20 Galileo Sensor Stations (worldwide) Control Centre (1 site) IOV & FOC Galileo Architectures Final System Architecture Reference Stations IOV & FOC Galileo Architectures FOC Ground Sensor Stations IOV & FOC Galileo Architectures Final Space Segment Walker 27/3/1 +3 Active Spares Inclination 56 29600.318 km Radii Period 14hr 4m 42s Ground Track Repeat 10 days /17 Orbits
2 Rubidium, 2 PHM Image: ESA IOV & FOC Galileo Architectures Ariane 5, ECB Configuration Up to 8 Satellites Galileo/GPS Frequency Bands Galileo Signals Galileo Signals in Space 10 Navigation Signals - Right Hand Circularly Polarised 4 E5b-155 dBW Commercial Service (CS) Open Service (OS) OS/SOL PRS BOCcos(10,5) PRS BOCcos(15,2.5) E6 -152 dBW Public Regulated Service (PRS) Safety Of Life Service (SOL)
Galileo Signals BOC(1,1)* Data + Pilot L1 E2 -152 dBW E1 15 75 .42 11 7 6. 4 5 11 91 .79 5 E5a -155 dBW CS BPSK(5) Data + Pilot 12 78 .75 Alt-BOC(15,10) Data + Pilot
7. 1 OS/SOL 12 0 * BOC(1,1) or Optimised CBCS Navigation Signal Properties Ranging SubCarrier Signal Code Rate (Mcps) Frequenc y Primary Secondary Code Code Length Length Data Rate (SPS) Encrypted L1F-d 1.023 1.023 4092 None 250
- - - Yes E6P Notes: L1 signals multiplexed using Coherent Adaptive Sub-carrier Modulation (also known as Interplex or Modified Tricode Hexaphase) giving a constant signal envelope prior to satellites high power amplifier. Low rate (one chip per primary sequence) Secondary Codes multiply Primary Codes. This improves signal cross-correlation and can aid data bit edge detection. Data rate expressed in Symbols Per Second (i.e. after Forward Error Correction) Galileo Signals BPSK/BOC Modulation Bi-Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Modulation BPSK(5) BPSK(k) Pseudorandom Code Rate of k1.023 MHz Pseudorando m Code Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) Modulation Each Eac Pseudorandom Chip Multiplied by Binary Carrier BOC(k,j) Binary Carrier Frequency of j1.023 MHz Cosine Carrier BOCcos(m,m) Binary
Carrier Sine Carrier BOC(m,m) Note: data signals additionally multiplied by binary data stream Galileo Signals BOCcos(15,2.5) BOC(10,5) BOC(1,1) E5 Alt-BOC Modulation Q 2 E5a-d E5b-d E5a-p E5b-p 7 6 Receiver can Correlate: 1. Entire Alt-BOC 1207.14 1191.795 1176.45 2. As if each lobe (E5a/E5b) were QPSK like GPS L5. (This gives small
5 I .... 8 .... 4 Phase Angle (1 to 8) determined from binary values of the 4 coherent E5 codedata streams: 1 151.0238 MPhases/ s 3 Alt-BOC can be represented as an 8-PSK Signal Optimised CBCS for L1 Option Within the EU-US agreement there is scope to optimise the L1 BOC(1,1) signal. CBCS = (1 - )BOC(1,1) + BCS(1,20) Signal can be optimised by adding a smaller Binary Coded Symbol (BCS) signal to a Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) signal to produce a Composite Binary Coded Symbol (CBCS) For balance sign of BCS is alternated
+Binary -Binary Coded Coded Symbol Symbol Can be tracked as BOC(1,1) Increased bandwidth gives CBCS receiver much better tracking/multipath performance even exceeds BOC(2,2) for 12MHz BW 5MHz Lobe in GPS L1 CBCS Like BOC, but subwaveform can take any binary sequence Galileo Signals M-Code Null Message Structure ...... Superframe (1) Frame (1) Frame (2) ...... Frame (i) ...... Frame (N) Forward Error Correction, Rate
Convolutional Encoded Symbol Rate is twice Data Rate Frame (1) Subframe (1) Subframe (2) ..... Subframe (j) ..... FEC UW Unique Word to Synchronise with Data Fields Subframe (M) CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check checks parity for data errors UW Data Field CRC Tail Bits
Block Interleaving After convolutional encoding excluding UW FEC Encoded & Block Interleaved Galileo Signals Ephemeris Message Structure Similar, but not identical, to GPS Galileo Signals GNSS Signal Interoperability GPS and Galileo Adoption of a common basis for Galileo L1 and GPS III L1 open signals: BOC(1,1). Adoption of interoperable timing and geodesy standards to facilitate the joint use of Galileo and GPS. Broadcast of GPS/Galileo time offset. GLONASS and Galileo Frequency sharing between Galileo E5B and GLONASSL3 gives prospect for interoperability of the two systems Joint broadcasting of GLONASS-K/Galileo time offset is envisaged QZSS and Galileo: Agreement that same signal structure as Galileo E6 Commercial Service is the best solution on compatibility and interoperability grounds Galileo Signals Galileo, a Set of Services
SAR Navigation Open Service Free service; Mass market; Encrypted; sub metric accuracy Commercial (dedicated signals in E6 band); Guaranteed service-data via Internet Safety of Life Open Service + Integrity and Authentication of signal. Guaranteed service Public Regulated Encrypted; Integrity; Continuous availability Search and Rescue Near real-time; Precise; Return link feasible Galileo, a Set of Services Open Access Service E5a E5b E6 L1
Open and Safety of Life Services Public Regulated Service Mass market applications Multi - Frequency Interoperability with other GNSS systems (dual receivers) and their evolutions Free of charge Commercial Service 1 frequency 2 frequencies Horizontal Positioning (95%) 15 [m] 4 [m] Vertical Positioning (95%) 35 [m] 8 [m] Velocity (95%) 0.5 [m/sec] 0.2 [m/sec]
Timing with respect to 30 [nsec] Galileo, a Set of Services UTC 30 [nsec] Safety-of-Life Mission Level Requirements Galileo supports operations employing Integrity Risk & Alert Limit Concepts (Designed with respect to ICAO & IMO Requirement) Level A: - aviation approach, rail and road applications. Level B: - aviation operations en-route to NPA Level C: - maritime operations. Galileo, a Set of Services Safety of Life Service Galileo to provide Global RealTime Integrity Monitoring Safety-of-Life (SoL) - For transport applications where lives could be lost if the performance of the navigation system is degraded without real-time notification.
Service Will Increase Safety, especially in the absence of traditional ground infrastructure. Service Guarantee by Galileo Operating Company. Safety/Business Critical Applications Additional Regional Integrity Provision Signal Authentication Galileo, a Set of Services Signal Authentication Concept Galileo, a Set of Services Public Regulated Service Encrypted Access restricted to authorised users Service Denial Capability Integrity Quick Alarm in case of malfunction 2 frequencies Horizontal Positioning (95%) 6.5 [m] Vertical Positioning (95%) 12 [m]
Continuity Risks 10-5/15 [sec] Velocity accuracy 20 [cm/sec] Global availability 99.5% Continuous Availability even in crisis times Spectrally Separate Signals Improved service robustness Governmental Applications Police, Civil Protection, Emergency, etc. Galileo, a Set of Services Commercial Service Based on the open service standard Provisions Additional commercial encrypted data
Added value services (higher accuracy, data broadcast, authentication) with respect to the open service Three-Carrier-Ambiguity Resolution Service guarantees Access through external Service Providers Galileo, a Set of Services Galileo Search & Rescue Galileo, a Set of Services COSPAS-SARSAT cooperative effort on Humanitarian Search and Rescue Activities Fulfil IMO & ICAO Requirements Backwards Compatible Global Near Real-Time
Reception Multiple Satellite Detection + LEOSAR + GEOSAR 406 MHz New - Return Link 15441545 MHz GPS & Galileo GPS & Galileo GNSS Market Forecast In 2020, Worldwide Market 275 - 300 billions (Product & Service) at least 3 billion users GNSS Market Galileo Market Sectors Location Based Services CPS: Global LBS Revenues of $35 Billion by 2008 Road Market By 2020 60% car 90% commercial Road Tolling Legal Framework, Guarantee Rail Sector Fleet Management, Guarantee
Agriculture Land Monitoring, Precision Farming GNSS Market Justice Home Affairs Construction Revenue Mechanisms Intellectual Property Rights Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, Know-how, etc. Activation fees Licence in chipsets Services authentication Services (high accuracy)
Contractual Quality of Service Legislation Etc. GNSS Market International Cooperation The EU is willing to involve nonmember countries in the Galileos research, development and industrial commissioning activities; Signe d U.S.A. * China Israel EU/US Agreement* India Adoption of a common signal for Galileo L1.
Commitment to preserve National Security capabilities. Broadcast of GPS/Galileo time offset. Non-discrimination in trade in satellite navigation goods and services. Non-restrictions of access to open service end-users. Ukraine Morocco Draf t Nego . Norway Argentina Russia S. Korea Talk s
Canada Brazil, Chile, Mexico Malaysia International Cooperation Further Information Further Galileo information is available on the following websites: europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/galileo/ index_en.htm www.esa.int/esaNA/galileo.html Further information on the Joint Undertaking: www.galileoju.com
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