Influence of Islam Terms- Islamic, Muslim, Moslem Followers of Mohammed Origins of the Arabs Who are the Arabs- Semitic people like Phoenicians, Jews, Egyptians, Syrians Tradition- son of Abraham through Ishmael
Roman times- many were Bedouinlived in desert, usually tribal and polytheistic revered Black meteor Kaba in Founder Mohammed 570632 married wealthy widow, managed trade received a message from Gabriel (angel) with a new revelation to follow Judaism and Christianity spent time in desert contemplating returned to convert others- trouble
Hegira- 622 forced from Mecca First day of Muslim calendar Beliefs of Islam Quran (Koran)- basis sacred book, ethical guide Five Pillars One God and his name is Allah(Mohammed is his prophet) Pray 5 x a day facing Mecca fast daylight during Ramadan
Pilgrimage to Mecca- once in life time Give alms to the poor laws- no alcohol, pork, dishonest Believed in being hospitable Spread of Islam- JihadAmazing Speed overpopulation- division among Byzantines/ Persians/Christians Abu Bakr- successor to Mohammed (caliph) instituted the jihad key- convert or pay taxes, also
promise of paradise and brilliant generals treated those conquered with civility Egypt- across North Africa- Berbers to Spain and Conquest Musa, Tarek, Conflict within Islam Abu Bakr elected- Omar followed, two others elected, killed 661- caliphate made hereditary in Damascus under Umayyads Mohammeds descendants Ali- Hussein
disputed- called shiat (partisans of Ali) defeated 680, but split Islamic world into Sunni and Shiite split lasts till today- revival among Shiites Iran mostly Shiite/ Iraq Sunni SH attacks Famous Islamic People Abbasid dynasty 750-1258 Baghdad- control far reachingprobably too far Fatimid- established in Egypt Saladin- takes over Fatimids, becomes Sultan- time of Crusades
Moors in Spain- Battle of Tours stopped advance dhimmis- Peoples of the Book not as much tax Jews, Christians, Achievements of the Islamic World use Arabic numerals Math and astronomy- borrowed zero from India, devel algebra medicine- developed treatments later basis of European medicine
and surgery paved streets , libraries and education when Europe had none art and arch- no statues or figuresbeauty in buildings Intellectual Life Dove- Founding of Cairoestablished university Trade important- kept ideas going preserved knowledge from Greeks Founded universities (Islamic idea) and centers for learning Built and rebuilt cities- art based
on geometric figures, plants Jihad 6th Pillar of Islam? Inner spiritual journey War on infidels ( anyone who is not Muslim) Defend faith and way of life Western Culture seen as threat Crusades..why sensitive about this? Importance of Dome of the Rock.
Discovery BBC /Presentation Perspective of some in ME Terrorism justified, ignored Palestinians, defile Islam (US troops in SA and elsewhere, shoot down pilgrims, let children of Iraq starve) Crusades- in Middle Ages Europe tried to take Holy Land 20th cen- GB and France Suez Canal, drove out Turks, set up Protectorates, Israel established 1948,
Six day War in 1967 Israel takes Palestine and Jerusalem. Millions become refugees, trained to hate supporters of Israel Culture conflict- Way of Western Civilization- too materialistic and secular, sexually immoral, movies, music, alcohol represent decadence. Role of women questioned many Muslim nations have women leaders. Turks and Mongols Seljuks - mid 1000 capture Baghdad Mongols 12th-13th Centuries
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