Advantages: Increases the growth and yield of crop

Advantages: Increases the growth and yield of crop

Advantages: Increases the growth and yield of crop
plants.
Disadvantages: Excess fertiliser can run off into lakes
and rivers and cause pollution leading to the death of
other plants and animals.
Advantages: Insects can be used to control weed
populations. No herbicides are necessary.

Agricultural
solutions
Biological control

Tissues
cultures

Cloning techniques in plants/animals

Small groups of cells to
grow new plants in nutrient
solution or solid agar.
Advantage: Important for
preservation of rare plants
and commercially in
nurseries.
Tissue
culture
Small groups of human cells
used to grow new tissues.
Advantage: matched tissues
can be grown that are not
rejected by the bodys
immune system.

Risks and

EDEXCEL GCSE
benefits
Disadvantages: Introduced insects can
complete for
non weedNATURAL
plants and disrupt other species food
chains.
SELECTION AND
GENETIC
Genetic
MODIFICATION
engineering
PART 2

Genetic
engineering

Risks: Seeds from GM plants
can be very expensive. Some
people think eating GM plants
is bad for health although
there is no evidence to
support this view.

Advantages and disadvantages of
genetic engineering

Benefits: decreased use of
herbicide with increase in yield
from food crops. Medicines
tailored for individuals.

Selective
breeding

Risks: alleles that may be
useful in future may be bred
out. Populations with low
variation can be vulnerable to
genetic diseases.

Modification of
crop plants e.g.
insect resistance
from Bacillus
thuringiensis.
Advantages

Benefits: Increased growth
and yield of plants and animals
for food.

Modification of
bacteria to produce
human hormones
e.g. human insulin
made by bacteria.

Resistant crops
could pass on genes
to wild plants
affecting food
chains.
Disadvantages

Modification of the genome of
an organism to introduce
desirable characteristics

Insulin produced
using GM bacteria is
not identical to
human insulin and
not everyone can
use it.

Genetic engineering process (HT only)
1. Restriction enzymes are used to isolate and
cut out the required gene.
2. If sticky ends of DNA on the isolated gene
and the plasmid DNA match then they can be
joined together.
To become
more
resistant to
insect
attack or
herbicides.

3. DNA is joined in the plasmid DNA using the
enzyme ligase bacterial plasmid or virus.

4. Genes are transferred to
plants/animals/microbes in a vector (bacteria
or virus) at an early stage of development so
they develop the required characteristics.
better hope brighter future

y modified crops (GMO)

(Biology only) Solutions to growing human populations

Fertilisers

Risks and benefits (practical and ethical)

Crops that
have
genes from
other
organisms

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